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History of the Postdoc Workforce
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Below is an archive of articles on workforce at the time of NPA inception, which were influential in forming NPA goals. For additional information on workforce issues for postdocs, see the career article on postdoc workforce issues.

Brain drain: Smartest students shunning science careers, except biology, researchers conclude Charles Q Choi, The Scientist, January 2003.

What Does the Future of the Scientific Labor Market Look Like? Eleanor Babco and Jolene Jesse, February 2003. This report presents statistics outlining the changes in the U.S. scientific workforce over the past 20-30 years.

Attracting the Best and Brightest William Zumeta and Joyce S. Raveling, Issues in Science and Technology. Winter 2002

The U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce: An Unconventional Portrait Presented at the GUIRR Summit, Michael Teitelbaum, November 12, 2002. Summary: "To state the message succinctly: those who are concerned about whether the production of US scientists and engineers is sufficient for national needs must pay serious attention to whether careers in science and engineering are attractive relative to other career opportunities available to US students."


Addressing the Nation's Changing Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists, Education and Career Studies Unit, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 2000. -NIH response -FASEB response

Has the Use of Postdocs Changed? NSF Brief 98-312, Dec. 1998 This brief examines the self-reported postdoc histories of holders of science and engineering Ph.D.s from U.S. schools to address the question whether the use of postdocs has changed

International Mobility of Scientistsand Engineers to the United States- Brain Drain or Brain Circulation?Jean Johnson and Mark C. Regets, NSF Brief 98-316, June 1998, revised Nov. 10, 1998 “This Issue Brief highlights the role of U.S. universities in acquiring, supporting and retaining foreign S&E talent, and the proportion of foreign doctoral recipients who remain in the United States for postdoctoral study as well as long-term employment.”